Education policy of the British:In pre-British days,Hindus and Muslims were educated through Paatshala and Madrassa respectively ,but their advent created a new place of learning i.e.Missionaries, so that they can create a class of Indian who would be “Indian in blood and colour,but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses.
Education is a powerful tool to unlock the golden door of freedom which can change the world. With the advent of the British, their policies and measures breached the legacies of traditional schools of learning and this resulted in the need for creating a class of subordinates. To achieve this goal, they instituted a number of acts to create an Indian canvas of English colour through the education system.
Initially, British East India Company was not concerned with the development of education system because their prime motive was trading and profit-making. To rule in India, they planned to educate a small section of upper and middle classes to create a class “Indian in blood and colour but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses. This was also called the “downward filtration theory”.The following steps and measures were taken by the British for the development of Education in India.The chronological development of Education during the British Period in India is discussed below:
1813 Act & the Education:
1. Charles Grant and William Wilberforce, who was missionary activists, compelled the East India Company to give up its non-invention policy and make way for spreading education through English in order to teach western literature and preach Christianity. Hence, the British Parliament added a clause in 1813 charter that Governor-General-in-Council less than one lakh for education and allowed the Christian Missionaries to spread their religious ideas in India.
2. Act had its own importance because it was first instance that British East India Company acknowledged for the promotion of education in India.
3. With the efforts of R.R.M Roy, the Calcutta College was established for imparting Western education. Also three Sanskrit colleges were set up at Calcutta.
General Committee of Public Instruction, 1823:
1. This committee was formed to look after the development of education in India which was dominated by Orientalists who were the great supporter of Oriental learning rather than the Anglican. Hence, they created paramount of pressure on the British India Company to promote Western Education. As a result, spread of education in India got discursive between Orientalist-Anglicist and Macaulay’s resolution come across with clear picture of British education system.
Lord Macaulay’s Education Policy, 1835:
1. This policy was an attempt to create that system of education which educates only upper strata of society through English.
2. English become court language and Persian was abolished as court language.
3. Printings of English books were made free and available at very low price.
4. English education gets more fund as compare to oriental learning.
5. In 1849, JED Bethune founded Bethune School.
6. Agriculture Institute was established at Pusa (Bihar)
7. Engineering Institute was established at Roorkee.
Wood’s Dispatch, 1854:
1. It is considered as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India” and contained comprehensive plan for spreading education in India.
2. It states the responsibility of State for the spread of education to the masses.
3. It recommended the hierarchy education level- At bottom, vernacular primary school; at district, Anglo-vernacular High Schools and affiliated college, and affiliated universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Presidency.
4. Recommended English as a medium of instruction for higher studies and vernacular at school level.
Hunter Commission (1882-83):
1. It was formed to evaluate the achievements of Wood Dispatch of 1854 under W.W Hunter in 1882.
2. It underlined the state’s role in the extension and improvement of primary education and secondary education.
3. It underlined the transfer of control to district and municipal boards.
4. It recommended two division of secondary education- Literary up to university; Vocational for commercial career.
1. It was formed to study on the problems Calcutta University and their recommendations were applicable to other universities also.
2. Their observations were as follows:
I. 12-year school course
II. 3-years degree after the intermediate stage
III. Centralised functioning of universities, unitary residential-teaching autonomous body.
IV. Recommended extended facilities for applied scientific and technological education, teacher’s training and female education.
Hence, we can say the British education system were influence by the aspiration of Christian Missionaries. It was injected to ensure a cheap supply of educated Indians to increase a number of subordinate posts in administration and in British business concern. That’s why, they emphasis on English as a medium of instruction and also to glorified British conquerors and their administration.
It is also true that the main purpose of the British policy of education in India was not for educating the Indians. Its main aim was to produce educated clerks who can work for the British government in India because Indians were not allowed to take part in other exams ( e.g. Indian Civil Services) organised by the British government. Higher education was a slavish imitation of the western system, unrelated to the needs of the country. Initially, up to an early 20th century, it was limited to the upper-class Indians. They had never advocated for the education of lower class. The growth of education in British period was not uniform at all levels, they had never emphasized on the primary education. The more attention was given to the expansion of high schools and colleges. Primary schools particularly suffered for lack of funds therefore vast masses of the country remained illiterate. It was the Indian freedom fighters who fought for primary education for all in India. Britishers have also preferred western subjects over Indian subjects. Instead of being limited to some section of the society, education had played an important role in the independence movement. It was the education which had introduced the concept of a republic( which was a western concept). Articles related to the freedom movement in the other parts of the world also had been translated into the Indian language which given new ideas to the Indian freedom fighters. Right from the beginning of their relationship with India, the British, who had come as traders and had become rulers and administrators, had influenced the economic, political and educational systems of the country. Their impact on the cultural and social life of India was, however, gradual.