All human beings are equal, but, all are not equally enlightened of the problems, situations and solutions; so, the enlightened have to lead and motivate the ignorant companions towards the change and transformation. Very often, in a well-going educational institution, the problems are not easily visible. This situation is regarded as ‘no problem zone’ which is certainly the bane for further progress of the institution. Where there is intention and scope for improvement, there are problems of change. The very spark and pulse of an institutional change creates unrest in the mind of the human resources. This situation is regarded as the ‘unrest zone’. The situation of ‘unrest’ is essential for an institutional change. The unrest of change creates disruption and friction in the institution; however, it ultimately results in Institutional transformation.
The process of change starts with identifying the problem and thinking for the alternative solutions. The ‘no problem zone’ is the situation of institutional statics and stagnation which needs to be disrupted by change management. The change and transformation are made effective through the system of communication and institutional research, which also help to create and sustain the institutional identity. Research is the start to end companion and lighthouse of change, transformation and institutional identity of the Institution. The frame of change, transformation, Institutional Identity and research creates new values, work-culture and educational environment in the Institution which creates a purpose of life, sense of participation sense of achievement among the human resources. It is said that, the change, transformation and Institutional Identity are the milestones on the way of a ‘world class’ educational institution, whereas the effective system of research is the vehicle to travel through to that destination. Thus, an act of change is a step forward towards the goal of ‘world class’ educational institution, because it leads to transformation and Institutional Identity through effective system of research and communication.
Key words: ‘No problem Zone’, Unrest Zone, Institutional change, Transformation, Institutional Identity, Research Vision, Institutional Progress, World Class Institution.
As per “Educational Statistics at a Glance” (2018) published by Human Resources Development Ministry (HRD) of India, the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at lower primary level is 100%; at upper primary level there is drop out of 4% and at Secondary level there is drop out of 17% students. It means 83% students come out of the Secondary level examination. However, this picture becomes very critical at Under Graduate level. According to All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE 2018-19), the All India Gross Enrolment Ratio at Graduation is only 26.30% (for age group 18-23 years). Further, the GER for Ph. D. is only 0.5% as compared to the students enrolled for Under Graduate degrees. This statistics prove that, of more than 55% of the students do not reach to UG level after passing their Secondary examination. Therefore, there is ample scope for improvement, change and transformation in the Institutions of Higher Education in India.
There are thousands of Universities and equivalent Institutions imparting higher education in India. However, no University or Institution of them deserves to be listed in the top most Universities and Institutions in the world. Further, there are thousands of Professors or Faculty working in these Universities and Institutions, but no Professor or Faculty of them has received the highest international honour like Nobel Prize or recognised internationally since many decades. In fact, these Universities, Institutions and the Professors or Faculty in India are lagging behind the world class qualities and performance, if judged on international standards. Why this is so? There may be many reasons behind this situation, but, a common reason is that there is lack of efficient and effective system of Institutional Research. Institutional Research is the only way to find out solutions for change, improvement and transformation in these Institutions and Professors/Faculty in India.
There is a close relationship between problems and human resources in any educational institution. The human being himself or herself is the creator and custodian of the problems and the provider of the solutions too. Thus, human being and the problems are the two sides of a same coin. Most of the problems in the educational institution pertain to human resources and the solutions also lie with the same human resources. It is said that, where there is a man or woman there is problem and where there is man or woman there are solutions too. So far as the problem of institutional progress is concerned, it is note-worthy to think that, are we concern only with the existing visible problems; or, whether we are also concern with the problems which are not generally visible but are essential to be attended in order to achieve the highest goal of the Institution.
The Dynamics of Progress of an Educational Institution:
For any educational institution, the human resources in are the reservoir of problems and of the solutions too. The intensity, intentions and initiatives of human resources are essential for the dynamic environment and work-culture in the institution. The cognitive as well as the physical attempts and efforts of human resources are the important determinants of the success of the institution. The dynamics of progress of an educational Institution are described as under:
- Two situations of Institutional life
a.‘No Problem Zone’: When the human resources in an institution are accustomed with the present situation, they enter into a ‘no problem zone’. They may not be quite happy, but they do not express any resentment or do not even complain against the present institutional life. In this situation, the stability and continuity are the only concerns of the people. It is a routine life situation for the Faculty and administration and even for the students become the degree seekers. This situation makes the human resources not to think of an alternative situation. Consequently, the abilities, energies, qualities and competence of the Faculty, administration and students are not utilised completely and also they lose their life-time opportunity of progress and extraordinary achievements. As the ‘low aim is a national crime,’ this situation is nothing less than that of national crime, which makes human resources to be under-utilised.
The main features of this situation are: (i) this situation is the effect of static mind-set of human resources; (ii) this situation creates stagnation in institutional life; (iii) this situation makes the work monotonous; (iv) the work is done as an act of passing the time only to earn the livelihood; (v) this situation creates a notion of happiness and the illusion of “we are doing our work.”; and (vi) the abilities, energies, qualities and competence of human resources are under-utilised.
b.‘Unrest Zone’: This is a situation of positive and constructive unrest or instability in the mind of the human resources in the institution. This is stage of generating spark, igniting minds and experiencing the pulse of change towards the transformation of the institution. The creative instability or ‘unrest zone’ is a different situation than the ‘no problem zone’. The educational institution which has ambition, intentions and commitment of expansion, improvement and progress cannot tolerate the situation of ‘no problem zone’ for a long period. Therefore, to overcome the stagnation of thinking, a situation of ‘unrest zone’ becomes inevitable.
The main features of this situation are: (i) the human resources in the institution are inspired of institutional change; (ii) this situation creates hopes for change and institutional transformation; (iii) this is situation converting the human energies into effective and efficient actions for attaining desired results; (iv) this is a situation of creating positive and constructive mind-set of human resources; and (v) this situation of mind, increases efficiency, enables optimum utilisation of resources and ultimately leads to the achievement of goals of the Institution.
2. The Institutional Change
The ‘unrest zone’ is the mother of change in the institutions. Any change starts with thinking, goes through planning and ends in action and improvements. No change is permanent; a change gives birth to further change. The intention and intensity of change increases the efforts and efficiencies of human resources. The chain of consistent changes with pre-determined objectives and well-planned efforts result in the “Institutional Transformation.”
The concept and nature of institutional change can be understood from the following definition of ‘Change Management’ in the corporate sector, which reads as: “a structural approach of transitioning individuals, teams, and organisations from a current state to a desired future state to fulfill or implement a vision and strategy.”
The change is a systematic and formal process of transition and it includes the tasks of defining and adopting institutional strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with the changing conditions. It is a critical part of any project that leads, manages and enables the stakeholders to accept the new policies, new processes, new technologies, new systems, new structures, new approaches, new work-culture and new values.
Characteristics of Institutional Change
- The change should be imaginable to convey a clear picture of the future of the institution.
- The change should be desirable in conformity with long-term interests of the institution.
- The change should be feasible comprising of realistic and attainable objectives.
- The change should be focused and clear enough to provide guidance in decision making and actions.
- The change should be well-planned and intellectually executed.
- The change should be flexible enough to allow initiatives, participation and alternative responses.
- The change should be communicable to explain and understand completely.
The principles of Institutional change
- The change starts with a clear vision which inspires, motivates and guides the human resources.
- For change, every moment is good to start with, no need to wait for a favourable situation;
- Change is not the end itself, but it is a step forward towards the end.
- Change is the way of transitioning human resources from current stage of stability and stagnation to the new stage of dynamic environment.
- A change results in many changes among human as well as physical resources at various levels.
- Change enhances effectiveness and efficiency of human resources.
- Change is essential for optimum utilisation of resources in any institution.
- The Change is dynamic and not the static, which does not allow stopping between two ends.
- Change means go ahead and not to stop till the achievement of desired results.
3. The Institutional Transformation
The transformation is the ‘make-over’ of an educational institution from the ‘erstwhile’ to a new one. It happens through the process of ‘unrest zone’ and chain of desired changes in the institution. The transformation has an aim of improvement, expansion and progress on the basis of universally accepted benchmarks. It is the journey of an institution from local to global by effecting changes in environment, work culture and approach of the human resources and commitment to the Institutional Identity.
Peter D. Eckel has described the nature of transformation of an educational Institution as “the transformation does not imply that institutions will change completely. They will not discard their basic functions of teaching, research and service, but instead will alter the ways in which they perform those basic functions and rethink the operating principle behind them.” (p.82). Further, Peter D. Eckel has also listed the types of changes involved in the process of Transformation of an Educational Institution viz.- (i) changes in course structure; (ii) changes in pedagogies (methods and techniques of delivering ideas, knowledge, contents, relevant information, analytical skills and applications); (iii) changes in learning and evaluation (students’ learning and assessment practices); (iv) changes in institutional policies; (v) new departments and disciplines; (vi) changes in institutional structures; (vii) new decision making structures; (viii) changes in the ways of interactions between groups and individuals; (ix) changes in language to talk about the institution; (x) changes in types and styles of conversations; (xi) changes in old arguments of stability and sustainability; (xii) building new relationship with stake-holders.
As the Educational Institutions are engaged in the business of transforming lives – the lives of their students, they better understand the value of timely change in the policies, strategies and practices of their Institutions. The institutions that are adaptive and proactive in their approach enjoy the greatest success, provided they adopt a deliberate strategy for achieving transformation through desired changes. The Institutional Transformation starts with setting up the targets and being committed to their predetermined agenda.
Kirk Donlan (Oct. 2017) in his article ‘Transformation sounds great…until your institution has to do it’ has stated that, “the hallmarks of a true transformation are: disruption, friction and change. The true transformation is not about adjustments implemented in short, but, the unobtrusive steps over a long period of time. The truth is, transformation is unapologetically disruptive. Yet, transformation will not begin until a disruption in the organization has occurred.”
Further, Kirk Donlan (Oct. 2017) also warns the Institutional leaders that, “as the line between positive friction and negative conflict is a thin one, they should not to let constructive challenges become confrontational conflicts. Even the individuals most committed to transformation within your institution may struggle to be objective enough to eschew the pitfalls of their old paradigms. The difficulty in change – as organizations and as individuals – is that we are not always objective enough to see where we are stifling our own progress, or where our greatest potential for change may lie. The Institutions across the nation face increasingly complex internal and external environments, resulting in an increased emphasis on the need for change. Almost all respondents have reported that in the institutional transformation, the change process is highly collaborative and involvement of a broad range of stakeholders is quite essential.”
Significance of Transformation of Educational Institutions
In the words of Michael Hooker “we are in the midst of changing from an energy-based to a knowledge-based economy which will alter the rules of international economic competition, thrusting universities into roles they have not traditionally played.” He further states that, “as the primary facilitator of the process by which individuals learn to use knowledge, the higher education has become even more essential to the economic success of regions, states, and nations. What has counted more than anything is the way that an economy develops and deploys its brain power. In this context, the higher education has become more important than ever before. However, there is no guarantee that traditional universities will be the preferred providers of higher education. Unless colleges and universities embrace the management revolution, they will steadily lose ground to emerging competitors.”
This highlights the importance and relevance of Institutional Transformation in higher education. The Transformation becomes more relevant for the reasons viz.- (i) globalisation of educational sector created new challenges before the educational institutions; (ii) New opportunities are generated by the knowledge economy all over the world; (iii) growing competition among the educational institutions has made it inevitable for success and sustainability; (iv) the aspirations of the students have been changed from a degree seekers to acquiring knowledge, skills and competence; (v) social change and changing educational values also demand for transformation in educational environment.
Nature of Institutional Transformation
The process of Institutional Transformation involves the paradigm shift as follows:
|Before Transformation||After Institutional Transformation|
|Administrative control||Autonomy of work, self-actualisation|
|Leading the individuals||Team work, synergetic and proactive approach|
|Controlling||Delegation of responsibility and authority|
|Punishments||Recognition, scope and confidence building|
|Rewards||Results, achievements and enhancements|
|Employer- Employee||Opportunity to contribute towards common cause|
|No problem – safe zone||Unrest, adaptability, change and improvement|
|Management by authority||Collaborative contribution and shared leadership|
|Let it go||Let us go; Let us do|
|Orders from higher office||Self-disciplined and punctual work culture|
|Under-utilisation of strengths||Optimum utilisation of strengths and energies|
|Doing as told||Target specific and result oriented actions|
|Teaching centric education||Students centric; teacher as a mentor and facilitator|
The Benchmarks of Institutional Transformation
The benchmarks or parameters of Transformation of an Educational are as follows:
- Ambition of becoming a world-class institution by the virtue of qualities, faculties, infrastructure, values, culture, environment and commitment.
- Introduction of new courses and disciplines as per aspirations of the students and employment opportunities.
- Introduction of new curriculum consistent with the needs and demand of students and job market.
- Scope for specialisation, research and contribution to the knowledge, theories and laws of various subjects.
- Infrastructural facilities, modern equipment, teaching aids and technology, Wi-Fi / internet facilities, computer labs, hygienic amenities, hostel facilities, etc.
- Proactive and enthusiastic educational environment, availability of teachers as mentors and facilitators.
- Scope for career advancement and adaptability for new ideas and innovations.
- New values and culture of education, free learning atmosphere, self-discipline, punctuality, cleanliness, equality, equal opportunities, no gender biases.
- Sports and recreation facilities.
4. The Institutional Identity of an Educational Institution
The Institutional Identity is recognition of an Institution in the mind of the stakeholders, in the employment market, in the educational or academic field and in the society at large. It is the visual and perceptional image of the Institution which may be virtual, global, national, local and personal. The Institutional Identity means what the people think of the Institution. Here, people means the human resources in the Institution including teaching and administrative personnel and also the stakeholders comprising of students, parents and general society as a whole. The Institutional Identity is concerned with mainly the people who are in direct relationship with the Institution viz.- personnel working in the Institution, alumni, students, parents and relatives of the students and general public at large. The concept and nature of Institutional Identity can be understood with the help of the concept of Corporate Identity or Brand Identity in Marketing and commercial world.
Alina Wheeler has defined the Brand Identity “as competition creates infinite choices, companies look for ways to connect emotionally with customers, become irreplaceable and create life-long relationship. People fall in love with the brands, trust them and believe in their superiority.” He further adds as, “The brand identity is tangible and appeals to the senses. You can see it, touch it, hold it, hear it, and watch it as movies. Brand identity fuels recognition, amplifies differentiation and makes big ideas and meaning accessible.” This definition of Brand identity gives clear ideas about the Institutional Identity of an educational Institution also.
Nature and Features of Institutional Identity
The students are the main stakeholders in creating the Institutional Identity of an institution in higher education. However, when a student completes his UG course in one Institution and enters into another Institution for further education at the level of PG and Ph. D. degrees, then identity of the former institution becomes secondary. This also happens, in the case when such students seek employment on the basis of PG or Ph. D degrees. When a student goes out from the Institution as a ready marketable product in the employment market, then the student is recognised by the brand name of that institution where he obtained education at last stage. Thus, for creating the Institutional Identity, the courses and curriculum should be made available as per the needs of the jobs and employment market by enhancing their practical utilities.
Considering the conditions in Indian job and employment market, the question that, at what stage of education the students get the jobs or employment, becomes relevant. Generally, Engineering and Medical students may get jobs after completion of their Graduation. The students of professional degrees get jobs after completion of their courses like MBA, MCA, B. Pharms, M. Pharms, etc. The Science students may get jobs or employment after acquiring their M.Sc. degrees. However, most of the students of Social Science and Humanities have opportunities only after completion of their PG and Ph. D. degrees only. Therefore, while structuring the curriculum and courses, these aspects of job opportunities should be kept in mind in order to create the Institutional Identity in the mind of students and alumni of the Institution.
The Elements of Institutional Identity
The Educational Institution of Higher Education is mainly recognised by its infrastructure, values, culture, educational environment, commitment and communication system. However, there are many special and unique aspects which make the Institution known and memorable as follows;
- Institutional Branding – recognition, goodwill, name and fame of the Institution.
- Brand of course – nature of curriculum – discipline and job utility.
- Subject brand – the Institution is recognised by certain subjects also. e.g. Chhatrapati Shahu college, Latur (Maharashtra) is recognised for its Latur pattern of teaching Science and Maths at 11th and 12th level.
- Personal brand – extraordinary qualities and achievements of any individual Professor or Faculty or team of Professors.
- Social recognition – certain achievements or special efforts for a cause.
- Research Identity – the institution may be recognised on the basis of research and development facilities in various disciplines and subjects.
- b1. Institutional Logo – unique design, visual image, differentiation – special appearance, colour combination, etc.
- Institutional Values – self-discipline, punctuality, responsible behaviour, social sensitivity, equality, consistency, etc.
- Institutional Work-culture – qualities, dedication, commitment, integrity, ethics, etc.
- Institutional Environment – the dynamic environment for improvement, job satisfaction, fulfilment, growth, expansion and progressive approach.
- Effective system of Institutional Communication and Public Relations.
- Institutional Infrastructure – facilities, amenities, teaching aids, ICT, Wi-Fi etc.
- Institutional Qualities – teaching aids, ICT or technological applications, competent and veteran Faculty and suitable Pedagogy.
- Institutional Utilities – creating marketable products, employability of curriculum and contents of courses and teaching/pedagogies.
- Institutional Impact on society – social research, issue specific studies, societal impact, and contribution in social change.
- Complementary Identity – MGM Medical College and MGM hospital adds the goodwill to MGM University and vice-versa.
5.Vision of Institutional Research
Where there is a problem, there is research and where there is research there are solutions too. In fact, the history of human development is the history of research only. Research and communication are key elements of the progress which starts with a ‘problem’. Realisation of the unseen or unidentified problem is the origin of research and hence, the problem in research is also the cause of research.
The research is a human activity which starts from a problem. Actually, research and problem are the two sides of a same coin. As we have already mentioned in the first part above that, the problem and human resources are two sides of a same coin. There is a common factor in these two statements, i.e. problem. Thus, we have three factors viz.- problem, human resources and research. It means, human resources can provide solutions to the problems through research. This shows that, the problems, human resources and research are interrelated.
The Institutional Research is a system of providing solutions to the difficulties, resistance and adversities in the process of Institutional change and transformation. Moreover, institutional research inspires the change instincts and facilitates transformation in the Institution of higher education. Research is a non-stop intellectual activity driven by analytical mind. It is a continuous process of experience, observations, knowledge, enlightenment, analysis, interpretations & inferences, search of alternatives, conclusions, decisions and actions.
Research is the combined gross effect of approach and attitude of investigation or inquiry of problems for innovative solutions. Conventionally, research is defined as the process of acquiring knowledge through a systematic inquiry of a phenomenon. But, obtaining knowledge is not the end of the research. In reality, application of knowledge for solving the problems is the goal of research. Thus, obtaining knowledge, application of knowledge and getting results are steps of institutional research.
The researcher has to think like a rebel. Research starts with rebelling against the situation of “no problem zone.” It provokes a new way of thinking which leads to change and improvement. Out of way thinking, raising questions and visualizing problems are the fundamental characters of Institutional research.
Another name of research is creativity or innovation! Research activates the power of imagination, creative visualization and sensitivity of intellectual self of human resources. It is the third eye of human resources which sees the unseen problems and visualizes the unimagined solutions. It also deserves to be called as the sixth sense which senses the problems, shortfalls and drawbacks in the present situation and also the dormant potentials and strengths in the resources of the Institution. Thus, finding a problem and making it as a subject of investigation or inquiry are the main activities performed in the system of Institutional research.
As described in the part of “no problem zone” the human resources are accustomed with the present position and they do not think of change. In the same way, it can be said that, slaves are slaves because they do not realize that they are slaves! Slavery is, in fact, a state of mind. Mind of the slaves becomes stable and static and consequently, they are accustomed with the present situation. They do not fill or think that there is something wrong with them. Therefore, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar says, “make the slaves aware of their slavery; they will certainly come forward to get rid of it!” The system of Institutional research has this function as suggested by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. Institutional research makes aware the human resources about their present state of slavery in the form of stability and stagnation in order to ignite the spark of Institutional change.
An Example of Different Perspective – Thinking and Approach
Consider a case of any Professional Educational Institution and raise a question that –
Why the Institutions is not classified as No. 1 in India?
i). is it, because of lack of best surroundings & environment?
- No! The best surroundings & environment are available.
ii). is it because of lack of means, infrastructure and premises?
- No! The best means, infrastructure and premises are available.
iii). is it because of lack of visionary leadership?
- No! The best visionary leadership is leading and guiding the Institution.
The main reasons are as under:
- The Institution does not think to be No. 1.
- The Institution does not know – how to make it No.1.
- The Institution does not act to be No.1.
- The Institution is not so consistent to be No. 1
- The Institution is not so determined to be No. 1.
- The Institution is not so passionate to be No. 1.
Here, the Institution means all the stakeholders including Head of the Institution, Faculty, Research wing, Quality Assurance Unit, Staff and Students i.e. the whole Human factor which is always subject to further motivation and improvement.
But, why to make the Institution as No. 1?
It is because; optimum utilization of resources is responsibility; providing the best quality in education is the obligation and facing the competition is compulsion of situation.
Conclusion: The research, not only builds theories, but also builds Institutional character. It provides practical solutions through a different approach and attitude! The research starts with thinking of a problem which generally not seen by others, analyses the situations and ends with certain applicable solutions and directions to act upon.
Application of Research in an Institution may include the following activities:
- Searching and visualizing the unseen problems and shortfalls
- Providing way outs and alternative solutions
- Enhancing creativity and innovation
- Leading the educational world and intelligentsia
- Showing the path of research to the world
- Make the others to follow your way
Significance of Institutional Research
- Quantitative and qualitative improvements in institutional resources and strengths
- Overcoming negativities and weaknesses
- Grabbing opportunities and curbing threats
- Preparation of short-term and long term action plan and time schedule
- Yearly action plan and periodical time schedules of the research unit
- Preparation of vision document of Institutional Excellence
- Preparation of vision document of all branches or units – collaboration, interaction with the respective branches or units
- Yearly action plan and periodical time schedules for all faculties and units
- Yearly publication of special devoted to some socio-economic topics
- Subject wise or Discipline wise annual appraisal
- Annual appraisal of every individual Faculty
- Annual appraisal of every individual student
- Annual appraisal of administrative heads
- Unit wise, discipline-wise, curriculum-wise annual appraisal
- Annual appraisal of Institution as a whole
- Organization of periodical short duration special training courses of
- Faculty development Programme
- Management and entrepreneurship development course
- Leadership development course – academic, professional, industrial
- Research development course for students and Ph. D. aspirants
- Research projects – funded and non-funded – Market research, social research, Government sponsored research
A Vision for a World Class Institution
Basic condition: No compromise on qualities, conduct, commitment, integrity, ethics, determination, dedication and compliance!
Start with in depth Research Report on
- Dynamics of a world class Institution in Higher Education
- SWOT analysis of the institution i.e. analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.
- Comparative analysis with top 10 Co-institutions in the country and abroad
- Comparative analysis with top 10 Universities in the country and abroad
- The human resources in the institution are the vehicle of change and transformation.
- The process of change is a transitional situation from the present state to a new world.
- The process of change starts with identifying the problem and thinking for the alternative solutions.
- The planning, action and motivation of human resources lead to transformation through the process of change in their thinking, approach, attitudes and actions.
- The ‘no problem zone’ is the situation of institutional statics and stagnation which needs to be disrupted by change management.
- The ‘unrest zone’ is the situation of disruption and friction, however, is essential to overcome the situation of ‘no problem zone’.
- The ‘unrest zone’ creates conducive environment for the change and transformation in in the institution.
- The change and transformation are made effective through the system of communication and institutional research.
- Research is the catalyst of change and transformation in the Institution.
- The institutional identity is created, built up and sustained through effective communication system and continuous research.
- Research is the start to end companion and lighthouse of change, transformation and institutional identity of the Institution.
- The research, change, transformation and Institutional Identity are the products of values among human resources like determination, dedication, integrity, ethics, attitude, approach and commitment in the Institution.
- The research, change, transformation and Institutional Identity create a purpose of life and sense of participation among the human resources through the values, work-culture and educational environment in the Institution.
- All human beings are equal, but, all are not equally enlightened of the problems, situations and solutions; so, the enlightened have to lead and motivate the ignorant companions towards the change and transformation.
- To create a ‘world class’ institution of higher education is the goal or ambition and the qualities like vision, mission, passion, profession and perfection are essential to achieve that goal and realise the ambition.
- An act of change is a step forward towards the goal of ‘world class’ educational institution, because it leads to transformation and Institutional Identity through effective system of research and communication.
- The change, transformation and Institutional Identity are the milestones on the way of a ‘world class’ educational institution, whereas the effective system of research is the vehicle to travel through towards the goal of the ‘world class’ educational institution.
- The Institutional Research starts with a problem, facilitates change with alternative course of actions and instructions; results into Institutional Transformation with new policies, new values of self-discipline, new culture participation and new environment of sense of achievement and self-responsibility which ultimately lead to unique Institutional Identity.
- Educational Statistics at a Glance (2018), Ministry of HRD, Government of India, New Delhi. (website: firstname.lastname@example.org)
- All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE 2018-19), Ministry of HRD, Government of India, New Delhi. (website: www.aishe.gov.in)
- Change Management Leadership Guide (2011), Ryerson University – Human Resource, Toronto, Canada.
- Peter D. Eckel, Assessing Change and Transformation in Higher Education, p.82, ACE website : http//w.w.w.acenet.edu).
- Kirk Donlan (Oct. 2017), ‘Transformation sounds great…until your institution has to do it’; A guide to Institutional Transformation in Higher Education-RHB, website: www.rhb.com)
- Michael Hooker (1997), The Transformation of higher education. In Diane Oblinger and Sean C. Rush (Eds.) (1997), The Learning Revolution; Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc. (Reprinted)
- Alina Wheeler, Designing Brand Identity, an essential guide for the whole branding team, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Marine Billias & Julie Miridjanian (June 2011), Creating a Visual Brand Identity, Bachelor Thesis in Marketing, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstand University, UK.
- John M.T. Balmer (2001), Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and Corporate Marketing, MCB University Press, UK.
- UGC- STRIDE, Operational Guidelines (website : www.ugc.ac.in)